# Microeconomics

An overview of my notes on microeconomics.

Price Elasticity of Demand (PED) is a useful microeconomics tool to help quantify changes in supply and demand. PED is used to mathematically measure Price elasticity.

The equation to calculate PED is: PED = (% change in **Q**uantity demanded)/(% change in **P**rice).

Using the equation for PED helps analyze Price elasticity. This is because PED makes analysis of demand change **precise**.

When demand is *elastic*, the % change in **Q**uantity demanded is not equal to the % change in **P**rice; it’s greater.

When demand is *inelastic*, the % change in **Q**uantity demanded is not the same as the % change in **P**rice; it’s less.

To calculate the change in **Q**uantity, use the *midpoint method*. Consider the following demand table:

Price (P) |
Quantity Demanded (Q) |
---|---|

$5 | 100 |

$6 | 90 |

$7 | 85 |

$8 | 60 |

$9 | 40 |

$10 | 5 |

Let’s calculate the % change in **Q**uantity demanded when the price changes from $6 to $7 using the midpoint method. Use this formula to calculate the % change: `(Q2-Q1)/((Q2+Q1)/2)`

. In friendlier terms, for two price points it’s the difference in demand divided by the average (mean) demand of those prices.

Using the data from our demand table, the equation looks like this: `(85-90)/((85+90)/2)`

=> `-5/(175/2)`

=> `-5.7%`

.

When calculating the percent change, it’s not important whether it’s a positive or negative percentage. We only need the *absolute value*.

The same formula is used for calculating changes in price. For the demand table above, this would be: `($7-$6)/(($7+$6)/2)`

=> `$1/($6.5)`

=> ~`15.4%`

.

Bringing this all together, PED = `5.7%/15.4%`

=> `0.37`

. The PED is less than 1 because the % change in price is greater than the % change in quantity.

When PED is less than 1 it means demand is *inelastic*.

When the % change in price and quantity are equal, the movement between those price points is **unit elastic**.

When a change in price is *unit elastic*, the PED is exactly 1.

If the Price elasticity of demand is greater than 1, the demand is *elastic*.

The change in PED tends to correlate with the slope of a demand curve. The slope of the curve is not the same as PED, but can also be used as an indicator of price elasticity.